Single-piece or solid pattern


The types of the pattern and the description of each are given as under.

1. One piece or solid pattern

2. Two piece or split pattern

3. Cope and drag pattern

4. Three-piece or multi- piece pattern

5. Loose piece pattern

6. Match plate pattern

7. Follow board pattern

8. Gated pattern

9. Sweep pattern

10. Skeleton pattern

11. Segmental or part pattern

1. Single-piece or solid pattern

Single-piece or solid pattern

Solid pattern is made of single piece without joints, partings lines or loose pieces. It is the simplest form of the pattern. Typical single piece pattern is shown in Fig. 10.1.

2. Two-piece or split pattern

Two-piece or split pattern

When solid pattern is difficult for withdrawal from the mold cavity, then solid pattern is splited in two parts. Split pattern is made in two pieces which are joined at the parting line by means of dowel pins. The splitting at the parting line is done to facilitate the withdrawal of the pattern. A typical example is shown in Fig. 10.2.

3. Cope and drag pattern

Cope and drag pattern

In this case, cope and drag part of the mould are prepared separately. This is done when the complete mould is too heavy to be handled by one operator. The pattern is made up of two halves, which are mounted on different plates. A typical example of match plate pattern is shown in Fig. 10.3.

4. Three-piece or multi-piece pattern

Three-piece or multi-piece pattern

Some patterns are of complicated kind in shape and hence can not be made in one or two pieces because of difficulty in withdrawing the pattern. Therefore these patterns are made in either three pieces or in multi-pieces. Multi molding flasks are needed to make mold from these patterns.

5. Loose-piece Pattern

Loose piece pattern (Fig. 10.4) is used when pattern is difficult for withdrawl from the mould. Loose pieces are provided on the pattern and they are the part of pattern. The main pattern is removed first leaving the loose piece portion of the pattern in the mould. Finally the loose piece is withdrawal separately leaving the intricate mould.

6. Match plate pattern

Match plate pattern

This pattern is made in two halves and is on mounted on the opposite sides of a wooden or metallic plate, known as match plate. The gates and runners are also attached to the plate. This pattern is used in machine molding. A typical example of match plate pattern is shown in Fig. 10.5.

7. Follow board pattern

Follow board pattern

When the use of solid or split patterns becomes difficult, a contour corresponding to the exact shape of one half of the pattern is made in a wooden board, which is called a follow board and it acts as a molding board for the first molding operation as shown in Fig. 10.6.

8. Gated pattern

Gated pattern

In the mass production of casings, multi cavity moulds are used. Such moulds are formed by joining a number of patterns and gates and providing a common runner for the molten metal, as shown in Fig. 10.7. These patterns are made of metals, and metallic pieces to form gates and runners are attached to the pattern.

9. Sweep pattern

Sweep pattern

Sweep patterns are used for forming large circular moulds of symmetric kind by revolving a sweep attached to a spindle as shown in Fig. 10.8. Actually a sweep is a template of wood or metal and is attached to the spindle at one edge and the other edge has a contour depending upon the desired shape of the mould. The pivot end is attached to a stake of metal in the center of the mould.

10. Skeleton pattern

Skeleton pattern

When only a small number of large and heavy castings are to be made, it is not economical to make a solid pattern. In such cases, however, a skeleton pattern may be used. This is a ribbed construction of wood which forms an outline of the pattern to be made. This frame work is filled with loam sand and rammed. The surplus sand is removed by strickle board. For round shapes, the pattern is made in two halves which are joined with glue or by means of screws etc.
A typical skeleton pattern is shown in Fig. 10.9.

11. Segmental pattern

Segmental pattern

Patterns of this type are generally used for circular castings, for example wheel rim, gear blank etc. Such patterns are sections of a pattern so arranged as to form a complete mould by being moved to form each section of the mould. The movement of segmental pattern is guided by the use of a central pivot. A segment pattern for a wheel rim is shown in Fig. 10.10. Copied from Introduction to Basic Manufacturing Processes and Workshop Technology by Rajender Singh.

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