TYPES OF COMMON TIMBERS, THEIR QUALITIES AND USES
The common types of well recognized timbers available in India are Shisham, Sal, Teak, Deodar, Mango, Mahogany, Kail, Chid, Babul, Fir wood, Walnut and Haldu,. Out of these, Deodar, Chid, Kail, Fir wood and Haldu fall in the categories of softwoods and Shisham, Sal, Teak, Kiker, Mango, Walnut fall in the categories of hardwoods. Some of the other foreign timbers commonly used in India are Ash, Burma, Hickory, Oak and Pine.
1 Shisham is dark brown in color and it possesses golden and dark brow stripes. It is very hard to work and generally wears or blunts the sharp edge of cutting tool very soon. It is available in India in Himalayan range at heights from 1000-1500 meters and in deep forests. It is recognized as highly strong and durable wood and it is mainly used for making good variety of furniture, tool handles, beds, cabinets, bridge piles, plywood etc.
2 Sal exists in rose brown color which slowly turns into dark brown. This wood is commonly available in India in Himalayas, M.P and U.P. It is free from attack of white ants insects and it is very difficult to work. It has poor finish and therefore is not used for decorative furniture. It finds tremendous applications in making doors, windows, cots, wooden handles, furniture and railway sleepers etc.
3 Teak wood is hard, very costly and it possesses wide applications. It is available in golden yellow or dark brown color. Special stripes on it add to its beauty. In India, it is found in M.P. It is very strong, durable and it maintains good polish. It is mainly used for making good quality furniture, plywood, ships etc.
4 Deodar is white in color when soft. But when it is hard, its color turns toward light yellow. It is strong and durable. It provides fragrance when smelled. It is not easily attacked by insects as it has some quantity of oil in it. It is commonly available in Himalayas at a height from 1500 to 3000 meters. It is used for manufacturing of doors, furniture, patterns, railway sleepers etc.
5 Mango is brown in color and it can be easily shaped in various products. It is widely used in India as a cheap wood for making doors, packing cases, toys and inferior furniture.
6 Mahogany is reddish brown in color which is highly durable when dry. It also contains some oil in it that prevents it from the attack of insects. It is commonly utilized for manufacturing cabinet, fine furniture, pattern making work etc.
7 Kail wood possesses too many knots in it. This wood is commonly found in Himalayas of India. It yields a close grained, moderately hard and durable wood which can be easily painted. It is commonly utilized for making cheap furniture, wooden doors, packing case etc.
8 Chid is also known as Chir. Its color is dark brown when is soft, but it is reddish brown when hard. It has stripes of dark brown color. It has oily smell and is used for interior work in the house.
9 Babul is close grained tough and pale red colored wood and is used for making tool handles etc.
10 Fir wood is light brown in color when soft but harder variety is found in dark brown color. It can be easily attacked by insects. It is commonly utilized for making drawers, packing cases, doors etc.
11 Walnut is a good variety of wood which resists the attack of white ants. It can be polished easily in a better way. This wood is generally used for making musical instruments, furniture, cabinet work, decoration work etc.
12 Haldu is white in color at the time of cutting, but once cut, its color becomes yellow. It can be dried and polished satisfactorily. It is widely used for making small objects such as stool, picture frames, trays, cabinet etc. Copied from Introduction to Basic Manufacturing Processes and Workshop Technology by Rajender Singh.