If Resistors are the most basic passive component in electrical or electronic circuits, then we have to consider the Signal Diode as being the most basic “Active” component. However, unlike a resistor, a diode does not behave linearly with respect to the applied voltage as it has an exponential I-V relationship and therefore can not be described simply by using Ohm’s law as we do for resistors.
Diodes are basic unidirectional Semiconductor Devices that will only allow current to flow through them in one direction only, acting more like a one way electrical valve, (Forward Biased Condition). But, before we have a look at how signal or power diodes work we first need to understand the semiconductors basic construction and concept.
Diodes are made from a single piece of Semiconductor material which has a positive “P-region” at one end and a negative “N-region” at the other, and which has a resistivity value somewhere between that of a conductor and an insulator. But what is a “Semiconductor” material?, firstly let’s look at what makes something either a Conductor or an Insulator.