CHARACTERISTICS OF COLD WORKING
The main characteristics of cold working are given as under.
1. Cold working involves plastic deformation of a metal, which results in strain hardening.
2. It usually involves working at ordinary (room) temperatures, but, for high melting point metals, e.g., tungsten, the cold working may be carried out at a red heat.
3. The stress required for deformation increases rapidly with the amount of deformation.
4. The amount of deformation, which can be performed without introducing other treatment, is limited.
5. Cold rolling process generally distorts grain structure.
6. Good surface finish is obtained in cold rolling.
7. The upper temperature limit for cold working is the maximum temperature at which strain hardening is retained. Since cold working takes place below the recrystallisation temperature, it produces strain hardening.
8. Excessive cold working gives rise to the formation and propagation of cracks in the metal.
9. The loss of ductility during cold working has a useful side effect in machining.
10. With less ductility, the chips break more readily and facilitate the cutting operation.
11. Heating is sometimes required.
12. Directional properties can be easily imparted.
13. Spring back is a common phenomenon present in cold-working processes.
14. For relatively ductile metals, cold working is often more economical than hot working.
There is some increase and some decrease in properties of the cold worked part, which are given as under.
Cold working process increases:
• Ultimate tensile strength
• Yield strength
• Fatigue strength
• Residual stresses
Cold working processes decreases:
• Percentage elongation
• Reduction of area
• Impact strength
• Resistance to corrosion
Source A Textbook of Manufacturing Processes and Workshop Technology by Rajender Singh.